Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic located in Europe, in the eastern part of the Balkan peninsula, occupying 22% of its territory. Bordered on the north by Romania, west by Serbia and Macedonia, south by Greece and Turkey yugoiztok. The country is washed by the Black Sea waters along the coastline to the east. The total length of the state border is 2245 km, 1181 km are land, 686 km – river (mainly on the Danube) and 378 km – sea. Besides the mainland, Bulgaria also has some small islands in the Black Sea and the Danube, and St. Anastasia, Belene, St. John, St. Peter and others.
With over 110 thousand km2 area (of which 110 510 km ² land and 333 km ² water) and 7.4 million people, Bulgaria ranks of 102 and 96 place respectively in area and population in the world. By area of Bulgaria is 11th in the EU and 15th in Europe.
With the arrival of the Bulgars led by Khan Asparuh about 670, the ensuing war of Slavs and Bulgarians with Byzantium and the signing of the peace treaty in 681, the foundations of the First Bulgarian Empire, a period during which establishes Orthodox Christianity as state religion and Old Slavonic liturgical language as state language and reaches to the largest territorial expansion of its borders, making it one of the largest and most powerful countries on the European continent, bordering the three seas in the reign of Tsar Simeon I. One of the greatest achievements of the first Bulgarian kingdom was the creation of the Cyrillic alphabet by St. Cyril and St. Methodius and their disciples, and spread beyond the borders of Bulgaria. Three centuries later after the allied attacks from Kievan Rus and Byzantium, led to the capture of the capital Preslav posledvalo its motion in Ohrid, but the decline of the invasion led to its seizure and fell under Byzantine rule for 167 years. In 1185 Bulgaria reappeared on the map of Europe with the rebellion of the brothers Asen and Peter Tarnovo, based on the Second Bulgarian Kingdom, which again is becoming the primary force on the European continent and the greatest territorial expansion reached under Tsar Ivan Assen II. Later in the 14th century razslabva and split into separate kingdoms, as a convenient moment for the Ottomans, Bulgaria fell under Ottoman rule, which takes about 500 years. In 1878 the Bulgarian state was restored as the tributary principality, gaining full independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908, being the Kingdom of Bulgaria until 1946 after World War II the country falls under the Soviet sphere of influence, joining the Eastern Bloc and in 1946 officially became the People’s Republic. By establishing a democratic form of government between 1989 and 1990, the communist era ended and Bulgaria for the first time became the Republic as it is today. Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic, a head of state of the country is the President of Bulgaria.
In economic terms, Bulgaria is the 66th largest economy in the world at purchasing power parity (2010)  and occupies 58th place among countries with better quality of life on earth. Bulgaria is one of the founders of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also is a member of UN, EU and NATO.
Bulgaria has its base, called “St. University, on Livingston Island in Antarctica, and as an advisory member of the Antarctic Treaty participating in the management of the territories situated south of 60 ° S
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